Friday, February 21, 2014

Merkel at Bergedorf: September 9, 2011

Angela Merkel, then in her sixth year as Chancellor of Germany, gave the opening address for the 149th Bergedorf Round Table discussion on September 9, 2011. The Bergedorf Round Table was founded in 1961 and brings together diplomats and intellectuals from around the world. These thrice yearly meetings are held with the goal of discussing current international issues. Merkel was asked to speak as part of the Bergedorf Round Table’s fiftieth anniversary which, incidentally, occurred two days before the tenth anniversary of 9/11/01. 

Merkel reflects on world events of the last decades as well as Germany’s stance on foreign policy moving forwards. She stresses the necessity of diplomacy and close allies as well as the acceptability of force. Her comments regarding her American allies are intriguing when one considers the phone- tapping scandal that would occur two years later.

Despite all our daily cares and the challenges of today’s world, we should remind ourselves time and time again what a great boon it is to live our lives in freedom – a boon for each one of us and also a boon for our country. Some had hoped in 1989 that once the cold war ended, a new golden age would dawn. Today we know that hope was bound to be disappointed. Tensions long overlaid by the East-West conflict suddenly erupted. We looked on as the Balkans were engulfed by wars that cost over 200,000 lives. The Transdniestria conflict broke out. The conflict over Nagorny Karabakh began. Abkhazia and South Ossetia attempted to secede from Georgia. There was turmoil in the northern Caucasus.

Outside Europe the hope that, with the cold war over, it would be easier to resolve conflicts in the Middle East, Korea or Kashmir proved equally unfounded. The opposite was the case, we soon found. Not long after the Iron Curtain was torn down Iraq’s invasion of Kuwait brought us back to earth with a bump. That was not the end of it. In addition to the classical territorial conflicts I’ve mentioned, we were also faced with totally new, so-called asymmetrical threats: terrorism, the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction, piracy and cyber attacks. In the years ahead there are likely to be increasing conflicts, too, over water and commodities.

The day after tomorrow will bring the tenth anniversary of the most devastating
asymmetrical attack we have ever witnessed. The horrific images that reached us from New York and Washington on 11 September are still fresh in all our minds. Everyone remembers, I expect, exactly where we were at the time.Some 3000 lives were lost. Today, as then, our thoughts and sympathy are with the families of the victims.

So as we’ve seen, ladies and gentlemen, the initial euphoria over the end of the East-West conflict has given way to a more sober assessment of the new realities. Yet despite all the crises and setbacks of these past two decades, it’s vital to remember that these years have also brought a host of extremely positive things –first and foremost the enlargement of the European Union from 15 to 27 countries. After centuries marred all too often by doom and destruction, Europe has become a unique bastion of freedom, peace, stability and prosperity. Following the bloody conflicts in Bosnia and Kosovo, NATO and the EU have brought the Balkans a measure of stability. The European perspective that has been offered the countries of the Western Balkans will also be the basis for lasting peace in the region. The civil war that threatened in 2001 in Macedonia was successfully averted. In 2005/ 2006 the European Union helped resolve the conflict in Aceh in Indonesia. In 2006 the EU played its part in ensuring the elections in the Congo passed off peacefully. Last but not least, with their ongoing antipiracy operations, the European Union and NATO are preventing a further deterioration in the situation in the Horn of Africa.

There are three main conclusions to be drawn from all these developments, conflicts and engagements.

Firstly, in an increasingly connected world there is no way Germany – or any other country – can resolve conflicts on its own. We – like all our partners, including the United States of America – are dependent on functioning partnerships and alliances. Whether developments in Libya, Iraq or Afghanistan are the issue, or the best way to deal with the Iranian and North Korean nuclear programmes or the constitutional crisis in Bosnia, one thing is clear: the many actors involved need to work together if any  progress is to be achieved.

For Germany one fundamental remains unchanged: our partnership with the United States and the transatlantic alliance. These are the cornerstone of our foreign and security policy. That’s why the 9 /11 attacks were not only an attack against the United States but also an attack on us. And beyond that, they were attacks on the entire free world. So it was only logical that NATO responded by invoking the mutual defence clause in Article 5 of the North Atlantic Treaty. Since then Germany has been working together with our partners in Afghanistan to ensure it will never again be a base for exporting terrorism to our countries. We’ve also joined forces with our partners to tackle the problem of Iran’s nuclear programme. And we’re part of the efforts to resolve the conflict in the Middle East and the remaining problems in the Balkans.

But our relations with the United States are built on more than just a security partnership. Their foundations go far, far deeper. We have a multitude of ties across the Atlantic, ties shaped by a shared history, a shared culture and above all by shared values. This is what enables us to pull together in tackling the many global challenges facing this 21st century. I firmly believe that in future, in a multipolar world, Europe and America will, by virtue of their shared values, be welded together even more closely – and for the same reason also challenged. As we Germans see it, these shared values are the foundation of both transatlantic partnership and European integration…

It’s true of course that in this integrated Europe Germany and France certainly don’t have the deciding voice. As for our other partners, they may be smaller, yet we must never forget them, let alone our neighbour Poland, for that matter. But it’s also true that without Germany and France pulling together, it’s hard to imagine how any progress in Europe can be made. Recent years have done little to alter this fact – and I expect it will be no different in the foreseeable future either.
The friendship between Germany and France is never directed against anyone, however. It is about one thing and one thing only: deepening European integration.  Both today and in future this is the key to our continent’s security and prosperity. That is why, also in the current debt crisis, we’re pulling together. For it’s our common belief that solidarity coupled with solidity is the right way to safeguard the euro over the long term – as a stable currency and hence guarantor of a Europe that holds together.

In the area of crisis management not just NATO but also the European Union is now playing an increasingly major role. We can see this in Georgia, in Kosovo and in Operation ATALANTA off the Horn of Africa. Nevertheless, the way the Common Security and Defence Policy and the European External Action Service are developing still lags behind expectations. More concrete and practical engagement, a greater  presence on the ground would count for more than ceaseless disputes on institutional issues between the Council, the Commission and the European Parliament.

For Europe’s institutions to agree on who does what isn’t enough, I may add. European policy-making will be effective only if member states, national governments and parliaments and the public at large are involved in the process and their interests taken into account. That goes also and in particular for foreign and security policy, which is of course a quintessential part of national sovereignty.

The first point I made – that no country can solve the problems of this world alone – leads on quite logically to my second point: the emerging economies must now assume greater responsibility. That goes for security, environmental, climate and energy issues as well as other matters of global importance.
That’s the very reason Germany has agreed with Russia, China and India to hold regular intergovernmental consultations. For the first time this year we’ve held such consultations with China and India with a view to intensifying our relations. This has been a valuable experience for us. And it has also driven home to us just how different our countries are in size. When the German and Chinese agriculture ministers, for example, discuss their various tasks, one is speaking about slightly more than one million people, the other about some 400 million.   

As the economies of these new players grow stronger, it’s only natural and logical that they should assume greater responsibility for managing regional conflicts. For the  United States and Europe would be biting off far more than they can chew if they were to intervene in every conflict around the world. Operations such as the election support mission in the Congo five years ago must remain the exception. That’s why we see our task as to support these new players as well as regional organizations…

In situations where we’re reluctant – after the appalling experience in Somalia in 1993/94, for example – to intervene ourselves in a conflict, it’s usually not enough to offer other countries and organizations simply words of encouragement. We need to assist countries willing to contemplate it to prepare for such engagement. Assistance of this kind, let me make plain, may also be in the form of arms exports – but of course only in accordance with clear and generally recognized principles. We would do well, however, to try and go a step further. If we agree with our Atlantic Alliance partners that NATO can’t resolve all conflicts and it’s up to the emerging economies and the regional organizations to assume greater responsibility, we as an Alliance should seek progressively to develop a common policy on arms exports. Such a common policy must and will always be restrictive in nature. In every single case it must and will be geared to a foreign policy aimed at promoting respect for human rights. Otherwise any value-based policy will be sheer impossible…

That takes me to my third point. While the use of military force as a last resort can and must not be ruled out, none of the conflicts we’re faced with today can be resolved by military force alone.

This is the conviction underlying the European Security Strategy and NATO’s new Strategic Concept. So we have the six party talks and the E 3 + 3 talks on the North Korean and Iranian nuclear programmes, the 5 + 2 talks on Transdniestria and the efforts of the Middle East Quartet. In Afghanistan, too, there needs to be a political solution that brings all parties on board. This is the only way to build lasting stability. Or let’s consider Libya, the most recent case. There can be no doubt that the intervention of NATO, of our allies, played a pivotal role in bringing down the  Gaddafi regime. I have profound respect for this operation. Incidentally, our abstention in the UN Security Council at no time signified neutrality on our part. What’s  important now is to give the country whatever support it wishes in building democratic institutions. From all this it’s clear that in many parts of the world – and particularly in Afghanistan – Germany is making a major military contribution, while insisting also on the need for civilian engagement and the importance, too, of economic sanctions, I may add. To get dictators to fall into line, targeted sanctions directed against those responsible for human rights abuses should be imposed much more often in fact. That’s why in the UN Security Council Germany is urging that severe sanctions be imposed on Syria and Iran. Given the way Iran continues to develop its nuclear programme, whose supposedly civilian nature is purely a facade, the international community ought, in my view, to consider further sanctions. The close cooperation between Presidents Ahmadinejad and Assad speaks volumes.

Ladies and gentlemen, these, then, are the three fundamental parameters of Germany’s foreign and security policy in the 21st century. Firstly, conflicts in today’s world cannot be solved by any country acting alone but only by viable alliances and partnerships. Secondly, the emerging economies need to assume greater responsibility in the international arena. Thirdly, to be effective, crisis prevention and crisis management require a mix of tools – diplomacy, development and cultural policy, police work and also military measures.

Germany knows its responsibility for the wider world. The prosperity we have achieved in a world order built on freedom, our interests and our values – all this requires us to assume responsibility. In today’s interconnected world it’s in our own vital interest for democracy and stability everywhere to be strengthened…

 * * *

Angela Merkel, Chancellor of Germany, “Germany Knows Its Responsibility for the Wider World,” The Bergedorf Round Table, Berlin, Germany, September 9, 2011. 

--Taby Katz

Japanese FM Kushida: A New Role for Japan

Fumio Kushida, Japanese Foreign Minister, delivered his foreign policy speech to the Japanese legislature outlining foreign policy last month for 2014. In the post World War II decades, Japan has balanced maintenance of national security with a commitment to anti-military and anti-war policies. In light of a weakening U.S role as the “world police” and increased tensions with neighbors China and North Korea, Japan is seeking greater cooperation with both the United States and her neighbors. As the region grows more volatile, Japan is forced to pursue a proactive foreign policy striving for regional peace through strengthened alliances, economic cooperation, and strong reliance on intergovernmental organizations. 

Expectations of the international community toward Japan have positively grown in the past year. Over the course of visiting countries around the world as Minister for Foreign Affairs, I have strongly sensed the steady spread of international support for Japan’s stance of upholding not only freedom, democracy, and basic human rights but also the rule of law and of earnestly endeavoring for peace and prosperity in the Asia-Pacific region as well as worldwide, including the Middle East, Africa, Europe, and Latin America and the Caribbean .

Meanwhile, the security environment surrounding Japan has become increasingly severe. This year, I will continue to strongly promote our foreign policy, which is centered on the three pillars of strengthening the Japan-U.S. Alliance, deepening our cooperative relations with neighboring countries, and strengthening economic diplomacy as a means to promoting the revitalization of the Japanese economy. In so doing, I will do my utmost to further Japan’s national interests. I will also redouble my efforts to promote the interests of the world as a whole by contributing to global issues.

In 2015, we will be marking the 70th anniversary of the end of World War II. Freedom, democracy, human rights, and the rule of law, which Japan has consistently upheld in the postwar decades, have become deeply ingrained among the Japanese people and have come to form the bedrock of the nation. Although recognition of history has been a subject of debate with neighboring countries, the Japanese Government’s recognition of history remains unchanged. Japan will firmly stay its path as a peace-loving nation. I intend to continue providing explanations of this basic position to our neighbors thoroughly and sincerely…

Over the past year, as we engaged in diplomacy that takes a panoramic perspective of the world map, we have worked to strengthen our relations with countries of ASEAN and the Asia-Pacific region, as well as Russia, Europe, Latin America and the Caribbean, the Middle East, and Africa. Given the increasingly severe security environment in the Asia-Pacific region, the importance of the Japan-U.S. Alliance, the linchpin of Japan’s diplomacy, is further growing. Since the inauguration of the Abe Administration, we have made tangible achievements through frequent mutual VIP visits between Japan and the United States. As the first pillar of Japan’s foreign policy, we will continue to strengthen the Japan-U.S. Alliance in all areas.

In the area of national security, in accordance with the outcome of the meeting of the Japan-U.S. Security Consultative Committee (SCC) convened last year, Japan will firmly promote cooperation in security and defense including through the revising the Guidelines for Japan-U.S. Defense Cooperation and further strengthen the deterrence. We will proceed with the realignment of U.S. forces in Japan in accordance with the existing bilateral agreements and make our greatest efforts to reduce the impact on Okinawa with the policy of “doing everything we can…”

The second pillar of Japan’s foreign policy consists of deepening its cooperative relations with neighboring countries.

For over 40 years since the normalization of diplomatic relations, Japan and China have endeavored to strengthen ties as neighbors in all areas. China’s peaceful development is beneficial to, and an opportunity for, Japan. Its relations with China constitute one of Japan’s most important bilateral relations, and the two countries share responsibilities for peace and stability in the region and in the international community. For the benefit of both countries and of the region, we will work to improve bilateral relations by reaffirming the basic principles of “Mutually Beneficial Relationship Based on Common Strategic Interests”. Meanwhile, Japan continues to call for transparency in China’s military buildup, as well as continues to deal firmly but in a calm manner with China’s attempts to unilaterally alter the status quo by coercive measures, such as Chinese government vessels intruding into Japanese territorial waters off the coast of the Senkaku Islands and its establishment of the “East China Sea Air Defense Identification Zone,” with determination to defend resolutely Japan’s territorial land, sea, and airspace.

Strengthening ties with the Republic of Korea (ROK), Japan’s most important neighbor, is essential to the shared interest of ensuring peace and prosperity in the region and it is a priority for the Abe Administration. Japan will continue to deepen communication with the ROK at various levels. Japan will deal with problems calmly, and make steady efforts toward building a future-oriented and multilayered cooperative relationship for the 50th anniversary of the normalization of relations between Japan and the ROK in 2015, from a broader perspective, respecting one another. Japan will also further strengthen its economic ties with the ROK through such measures as promotion of bilateral trade and investment and cooperation between Japanese and the ROK’s companies in third countries. On Takeshima, which is an inherent part of the territory of Japan, Japan will continue to make steady efforts by clearly conveying it’s position…

Japan will actively take part in developing and implementing international economic rules in such frameworks as the World Trade Organization (WTO), the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the G8, and the G20. As it commemorates 50th Anniversary as a Member of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) this year, Japan will fulfill its role as the Chair of the Ministerial Council Meeting…
Japan’s postwar path as a peace-loving nation has won genuine appreciation and respect in the international community. While firmly upholding this path, Japan will spare no effort in making unique contributions toward the realization of a peaceful and prosperous world as a “Proactive Contributor to Peace” based on the principle of international cooperation. I am confident that doing so will further deepen understanding of Japan’s position and further solidify the international community’s trust in Japan. I will continue to focus my energies on pursuing policies aimed at protecting Japan and realizing peace and prosperity in the world.

Fumio Kishida, Minister for Foreign Affairs, “Foreign Policy Speech by Minister for Foreign Affairs Fumio Kishida to the 186th Session of the Diet,” The National Diet, Tokyo, Japan, January 24, 2014..

--Michael Greenberger

Zuma: State of the Nation

            The following is the recent State of the Nation address given by South African President Jacob G. Zuma on February 13, 2014. Much like the United State’s State of the Union address which was recently delivered by President Obama, the purpose of this speech is to make an official statement about both the current state of South Africa and its goals for the future. South Africa recently suffered a great sadness with the death of Nelson Mandela, one of the most prolific leaders in recent history. Although the sections of the speech regarding Mr. Mandela were cut for space purposes his influence can be seen in the President’s focus on creating equality in South Africa.

…I will report back on the five priorities, starting with the economy. On average, the economy has grown at 3,2 percent a year from 1994 to 2012 despite the global recession which claimed a million jobs. Working together as government, business, labour and the community sector, we nursed the economy to a recovery. The national wealth, measured in terms of GDP, has grown to more than 3.5 trillion rand. Jobs are now being created again. There are now 15 million people with jobs in the country, the highest ever in our history, and over 650 thousand jobs were created last year, according to Stats SA.

This is still not good enough. The unemployment rate still remains high. Youth unemployment in South Africa continues to be of concern, as it is throughout the world.
We are taking a number of measures, including the Employment Tax Incentive Act which encourages employers to hire younger workers.
Regulations will be passed to ensure that this does not affect unsubsidized or older workers adversely.
Further measures are contained in the National Youth Accord that was signed in Soweto last April.
The Expanded Public Works Programme and the Community Work Programme continue to be an effective cushion for the poor and the youth.
We have created 3,7 million work opportunities over the past five years. Our people obtain an income and skills from the public works programme, which they use to seek formal employment.
Cabinet has set a target of 6 million work opportunities from this year to 2019, targeting the youth.
Our social assistance programme which now reaches about 16 million people, provides a safety for millions, especially vulnerable children…
We are still going through a difficult period.
Developments in the United States economy have led to a rapid depreciation in the emerging market currencies, including the rand.
During the course of 2013, the rand depreciated by 17.6 per cent against the US dollar.
The weaker exchange rate poses a significant risk to inflation and will also make our infrastructure programme more expensive.
However, export companies, particularly in the manufacturing sector, should take advantage of the weaker rand and the stronger global recovery.
While we have these difficulties, we know that we can cope with this period of turbulence.
We have done so before in the past five years.
We will, in fact, emerge stronger if we do the right things.
We have to work together as government, business and labour to grow our economy at rates that are above 5 per cent to be able to create the jobs we need.
Fortunately this collaboration is already taking place.
It is taking place at NEDLAC which is one of the key institutions of cooperation in our democracy, between government, business, labour and the community sector.
It has taken place as well in engagements that we have been having with the business community.
Last year I started engaging business on specific steps that government can take to make it easier to do business in our country.
Arising out of that process, we have now streamlined regulatory and licensing approvals for environmental impact assessments, water licenses and mining licenses.
Parliament is finalizing amendments to the law to give effect to this very positive development, which will cut to under 300 days, the time it takes to start a mine, from application to final approvals.
The Deputy President of the Republic continues to facilitate discussions between government, mining companies and labour.
The purpose is to stabilise industrial relations in this very important sector of our economy. The process is yielding results.
Strikes in the sector were fewer and shorter last year.
And more importantly, industrial relations processes are taking place in a manner consistent with the law.
We have intervened in mining because it is one of our key job drivers. We need a mining sector that works. Mining employs over half a million people.
It is the biggest earner of foreign exchange in our country. It also contributes about 20 billion rand directly to the tax revenue.
Mining also makes a far larger contribution as a buyer of goods and services, and a supplier of inputs to other sectors of our economy and other economies around the globe.
We are exploring partnerships with stakeholders to address the issue of housing in mining towns.
Let me also remind mining companies that 2014 is the deadline for them to improve housing and living conditions of mineworkers and to achieve a number of targets.
Government continues to monitor and enforce compliance on both the company’s Social and Labour Plans and Mining Charter targets.
Fellow South Africans,
Honourable Members,
Other than mining, we had identified five other job drivers in 2009.
These are tourism, agriculture, the green economy, infrastructure development and manufacturing.
The tourism industry has grown dramatically. In 1993, South Africa received a mere 3 million foreign visitors. By 2012, the figure had grown to 13 million visitors.
We will continue to grow this industry, given its potential for job creation.
In 2012 we unveiled the National Infrastructure Plan, led by the President through the Presidential Infrastructure Coordinating Commission.
We have subsequently invested one trillion rand in public infrastructure over the past five years.
Many of the projects are completed or are nearing completion.
I will mention just a few.
The Rea Vaya system in Joburg is now used by more than 100 000 Gauteng residents. Similar systems are being built in Cape Town, Tshwane, Nelson Mandela Bay, Buffalo City, eThekwini and Rustenburg.
The country’s harbours and ports have been improved.
We have built a 700 kilometre fuel pipeline from Durban to Gauteng to transport 4 billion cubic litres of petrol, diesel and jet fuel a year.
Close to 1500 kilometres of new roads or lanes have been built...
...The construction of new rail lines has started in Mpumalanga, to ease the pressure off the roads.
The Gautrain project is now fully functional and carries over 1,2 million passengers a month.
The Passenger Rail Agency of South Africa will spend over 120 billion rand over the next 10 years to buy new trains.
Transnet is implementing its massive 300 billion rand market demand strategy, building much needed transport infrastructure.
To realise the economic potential of the Western Cape and the West Coast, we launched the Saldanha Industrial Development Zone and opened two new factories in Atlantis.
To improve the water supply, two large new dams were completed, De Hoop in Limpopo and Spring Grove in KwaZulu-Natal, while phase 2 of the Lesotho Highlands Water Project is to be launched soon.
Construction is continuing at the new power stations, Medupi in Limpopo, Kusile in Mpumalanga and Ingula near Ladysmith, employing more than 30 000 workers.
We continue to explore other sources of energy, in line with the Integrated Resource Plan for Energy.
The development of petroleum, especially shale gas will be a game-changer for the Karoo region and the South African economy.
Having evaluated the risks and opportunities, the final regulations will be released soon and will be followed by the processing and granting of licenses.
We expect to conclude the procurement of nine thousand six hundred megawatts of nuclear energy.
Biofuels manufacturers have been selected and have started work.
Honourable Members
Ours is indeed a country at work and is a much better place to live in. We must keep the momentum.
Honourable Members,
More of our wealth is created through the internet or telecommunication.
A 37 000 kilometres of fibre-optic cable has been laid by the private and public sectors in the past five years. This will be significantly expanded in the years ahead.
We are proud of our successes in science and technology. The construction of the first telescope of the 64-dish forerunner to the Square Kilometre Array, the MeerKAT, will be completed in the first quarter of 2014.
Honourable Members,
Our incentives to boost manufacturing have yielded returns.
The Automotive Investment Scheme that was launched in 2009 has approved a total 3.8 billion rand worth of incentives for about 160 investment projects. These sustain more than 50 thousand jobs.
The companies will be developing sedan cars, minibus taxis and buses.
We have stabilised the clothing, textile, leather and footwear sector, which had been shedding jobs.
Several industries have been designated for local content. These include buses, canned vegetables, clothing, textiles, leather and footwear and other goods.
We have concrete examples of the success of the localisation programme.
In the past two years alone, more than 20 000 minibus taxis and 330 buses were assembled locally, drawing investment and development to our cities.
In the next five years, the state will procure at least 75% of its goods and services from South African producers.
Fellow South Africans,
We have to work more intensively to develop emerging or black industrialists.
Many of the aspirant black industrialists complain about the difficulties they experience in obtaining industrial finance, supplier and retail markets, and technical production support.
The National Empowerment Fund, the Industrial Development Corporation and the Small Enterprise Finance Agency will continue to provide finance to viable black-owned businesses to promote industrialisation.
In addition, we encourage established businesses to support the development of black industrial businesses.
Agriculture is a key job driver and a provider of opportunities for entrepreneurship.
Our agricultural support programme, Fetsa Tlala, is producing brand new exporters.
The first 88 smallholder farmers in this programme supplied the United Nations World Food Programme with 268 tons of maize and beans to send to Lesotho last month. We expect this number to increase.
We will continue to promote our fisheries sector as well, which contributes an estimated 6billion rand to the economy and provides 27 000 jobs.
Honourable Members,
We have made good progress in the land reform programme.
Since 1994, nearly 5,000 farms, comprising 4.2 million hectares, have been transferred to black people, benefiting over 200,000 families.
Nearly 80,000 land claims, totaling 3.4 million hectares, have been settled and 1.8 million people have benefited.
The next administration will need to take forward a number of policy, legislative and practical interventions, to further redress the dispossession of our people of their land.
These include matters relating to the establishment of the Office of the Valuer-General and thereby opening of the lodgement of claims.
Honourable Members
South Africa is indeed a much better place to live in.
Let me now report on our social transformation programme.
Education is a ladder out of poverty for millions of our people.
We are happy therefore that there is a huge increase in the enrolment of children in school, from pre-primary to tertiary level.
The number of children attending Grade R has more than doubled, moving from about 300 thousand to more than 700 thousand between 2003 and 2011.
A Draft Policy Framework towards Universal Access to Grade R has been gazetted for public comment, with a view to making Grade R compulsory…
…The matric pass rate has gone up from around 61 percent in 2009 to 78 percent last year and the bachelor passes improve each year.
Through the Annual National Assessments, we keep track of improvements and interventions needed, especially, in maths and science.
To promote inclusivity and diversity, the South African Sign Language curriculum will be offered in schools from next year, 2015.
We have increased our numbers of literate adults through the Kha Ri Gude programme from 2,2 million in 2008 to 3 million people.
We have also been investing in teacher training and are re-opening teacher training colleges to meet the demand.
To produce a decent learning environment, we have delivered 370 new schools replacing mud schools and other unsuitable structures around the country. The programme continues.
We have a good story to tell in higher education as well.
Student enrolments at universities increased by 12% while further Education and Training college enrolments have increased by 90%.
We have increased the budgets of the National Student Financial Aid Scheme to 9 billion rand to meet the rising demand.
Another major achievement of this term has been the establishment of two brand new universities, Sol Plaatje in the Northern Cape and the University of Mpumalanga.
We will also build 12 new FET Colleges in Limpopo, Mpumalanga, KwaZulu-Natal and Eastern Cape.
The launch of the National Education Collaboration Framework last year was an important development for the country. We wish the team well in their national duty.
We have a good story to tell in the improvement of health care too.
Over the past five years, 300 new health facilities have been built, including 160 new clinics.
Ten new hospitals have been builtor refurbished in Ladybrand, Germiston, Mamelodi, Natalspruit, eThekwini, Zola, Bojanala, Vryburg District, Swartruggens, Khayelitsha and Mitchell’s Plain...
The independence of the judiciary has been further enhanced by the establishment of the Office of the Chief Justice as a separate institution from the Department of Justice and Constitutional Development. We have passed several pieces of legislation to support this new role of the Office of the Chief Justice.
Progress is being made in the transformation of the judiciary to reflect the race and gender demographics of the country.
The Chief Justice of the Republic continues to champion and lead this transformation.
Black judges (African, Indian and Coloured) now constitute 61% of all judges.
However, the acute under-representation of women on the bench remains of concern. Of the judicial establishment of 239 judges, only 76 are women.
The challenge is to transform the legal profession broadly in order to nourish the pool from which female judges can be appointed.
The finalisation of the Legal Practice Bill will assist to broaden the pool from which potential judicial officers could be selected.
Honourable Speaker and Chairperson,
South Africans are united in wanting a corruption free society. Fighting corruption within the public service is yielding results.
Since the launch of the National Anti-Corruption Hotline by the Public Service Commission, over 13 000 cases of corruption and maladministration have been referred to government departments for further handling and investigation.
Government has recovered more than 320-million rand from perpetrators through the National Anti-Corruption Hotline.
Some of the successes of the National Anti-Corruption Hotline include the following:
• 1 542 officials were dismissed from the Public Service.
• 140 officials were fined their three month salary.
• 20 officials were demoted
• 355 officials were given final written warnings.
• 204 officials were prosecuted.
To prevent corruption in the supply chain system, government has decided to establish a central tender board to adjudicate tenders in all spheres of government.
This body will work with the chief procurement officer whose main function will be to check on pricing and adherence to procedures as well as fairness.
The Special Investigating Unit is investigating maladministration or alleged corruption in a number of government departments and state entities, through 40 proclamations signed by the President during this administration. We will keep the public informed of the outcome of the investigations.
In the first six months of last year, the Asset Forfeiture Unit paid a total of 149 million rand into the Criminal Assets Recovery Account and to the victims of crime.
This is 170% above its target of 55 million rand and is higher than it has ever achieved in a full year.
Last year, the competition authorities investigated large-scale price fixing in the construction industry and fined guilty companies 1.4 billion rand.
Further steps against those involved are now underway.
I would now like to touch briefly on the provision of basic services to our people.
Over the past 20 years, remarkable achievements have been made in increasing access to services such as water, sanitation and electricity.
Government has begun an intensive programme to eliminate the bucket system as part of restoring the dignity of our people.
Phase One of the programme will eradicate buckets in formalized townships of the Free State, Eastern Cape and Northern Cape.
Phase Two will eradicate buckets in informal settlements in all provinces.
In housing, about 3 million housing units and more than 855 thousand serviced sites were delivered since 1994.
Nearly 500 informal settlements have been replaced with quality housing and basic services over the past five years.
The next administration will promote better located mixed income housing projects.
Some communities still do not have these services especially in informal settlements and rural areas.We are therefore working with all spheres of government to ensure the provision of these services, especially in the 23 municipalities with the greatest number of backlogs.
In last year’s State of the Nation Address, I raised my concern with the manifestation of violence in some of the protests taking place in our country.
Violent protests have taken place again around the country in the past few weeks.
Also worrying is what appears to be premeditated violence, as is the case with the use of petrol bombs and other weapons during protests.
The democratic government supports the right of citizens to express themselves.
The right to protest, peacefully and unarmed, is enshrined in the Constitution.
However, when protests threaten lives and property and destroy valuable infrastructure intended to serve the community, they undermine the very democracy that upholds the right to protest.
The dominant narrative in the case of the protests in South Africa has been to attribute them to alleged failures of government.
However the protests are not simply the result of “failures” of government but also of the success in delivering basic services.
When 95% of households have access to water, the 5% who still need to be provided for, feel they cannot wait a moment longer.
Success is also the breeding ground of rising expectations.
Let me also add Honourable Members, that any loss of life at the hands of the police in the course of dealing with the protests cannot be overlooked or condoned.
Loss of life is not a small matter. We need to know what happened, why it happened. Any wrongdoing must be dealt with and corrective action must be taken. Police must act within the ambit of the law at all times.
Having said this, we should also as a society be concerned that between 2005 and 2013, close to 800 police officerswere killed.
The police are protectors and are the buffer between a democratic society based on the rule of law, and anarchy. As we hold the police to account, we should be careful not to end up delegitimising them and glorify anarchy in our society.
The culture of violence originated from the apartheid past. We need to conduct anintrospectionin our efforts to get rid of this scourge.
As leaders from all walks of life, we must reflect on what we did or did not do, to systematically root out the violence that surfaced in protests during the early days of our democracy.
We have a collective responsibility to build a society that respects the rule of law, respects one another and which respects life and property.
We should work together to rebuild Ubuntu and a culture of responsibility in our society.
Honourable Speaker,
Honourable Chairperson of the NCOP,
A decision has been taken to improve functioning of local government.
The amendment of the Municipal Systems Act is intended to improve the capacity of municipalities to deliver services.
Qualified and experienced personnel must be deployed in municipalities.
We also need to strengthen existing forums of people’s participation and enable our people to play a greater role in development.
The fight against corruption must be intensified as well, especially given reports that some services are interrupted or stopped, so that certain people could provide those services at cost to the state.
These matters are being prioritised for the next administration.
Honourable Speaker and Chairperson
Democratic South Africa’s foreign policy was shaped many decades ago during the fierce international campaign to isolate the apartheid state.
ANC President Oliver Tambo played a key role in that regard, assisted by among others, the late Johnny Makatini, former head of international affairs.His wife, Mrs Valerie Makatini is one of our honoured guests this evening.Africa has remained at the centre of our foreign policy.
We have worked hard to strengthen support for the African Union, SADC and all continental bodies whose purpose is to achieve peace and security.
We have also prioritised the promotion of regional economic integration, infrastructure development, intra-African trade and sustainable development in the continent.
This year we also submitted our third country report to the AU African Peer Review Mechanism which was well received.
We continue to support peacemaking and conflict resolution.
Progress is being made in negotiations between Sudan and South Sudan on outstanding issues following the secession.
Following requests from Sri Lanka and South Sudan for assistance in bringing about peace and reconciliation, Mr Cyril Ramaphosa, has been appointed as South Africa’s Special Envoy to the two countries.
His expertise in conflict resolution and negotiations as well as our country’s experience in this regard, will greatly assist the two countries to resolve their problems.
We will continue to strengthen relations with Europe, North America, Latin America, Asia and countries in the South.
Participation in international multilateral forums such as the G20 have been beneficial for the country.
And joining the Brazil, Russia, India and China (BRIC) group in December 2010 counts as among the key achievements of the fourth administration.
It was also a great honour to host the Fifth BRICS Summit on 27 March 2013 in Durban, which saw the participation of African leaders to discuss developmental cooperation with BRICS.
We will continue to serve diligently in the United Nations in promotion of strong international governance.
We will also continue promoting the reform of the UN Security Council and global financial institutions…
…South Africa is a much better place to live in now than it was before 1994.
We continue to face challenges. But life will also continue to change for the better.
Nkosi Sikelel’ i Africa
God Bless Afrika.
I thank you.


Jacob G. Zuma, President of the Republic of South Africa, “The State of the Nation”, Cape Town, South Africa, February 13, 2014.

--Andrew Sanger